Miniaturized multiresidue method for determination of 267 pesticides, their metabolites and polychlorinated biphenyls in low mass beebread samples by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry
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Current work presents developed and validated miniaturized method for residue analysis of 261 pesticides and their metabolites as well as 6 congeners of non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (ndl-PCB) in a very low mass beebread sample. Sample preparation is based on modified QuEChERS protocol with all steps miniaturized to enable multiresidue analysis of sample with extremely low weight. Sample of beebread (0.3 g) was extracted with 1 mL of acetonitrile containing 5% formic acid and ammonium formate salt were added, then extract was subjected to clean-up by freezing and two-step dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) with a Supel QuE Verde sorbents (Supelclean ENVI-Carb Y; Supelclean PSA; Z-Sep+; magnesium sulfate). After 1st step dSPE a portion of extract was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for 200 pesticide residues. Remaining extract was subjected to 2nd step dSPE clean-up by another Supel QuE Verde and then after concentration and solvent exchange it was analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for another 61 pesticide and 6 ndl-PCB residues. Method enables determination of residues of 101 insecticides, 72 herbicides, 67 fungicides, 10 acaricides, 6 growth regulators, 5 veterinary drugs and 6 ndl-PCB's. Particular attention was paid to the pesticides being active substances of plant protection products recommended for the protection of winter oilseed rape and apple orchards which during their blooming periods are one of the most attractive sources of food for pollinators and could serve as representatives of other economically important crops. Method was validated according to the Guidance document SANTE/12682/2019 at six concentration levels from 0.001 to 0.5 mg kg−1. The analysis of beebread samples spiked at the level of 0.01 mg kg−1showed mean recovery (trueness) value of about 98% and RSDr (precision) below 20%. The small weight of the sample did not adversely affect the limits of quantification and 75% of analytes could be quantified at least at concentration of 0.005 mg kg−1. Developed mini-method was tested in the analysis of beebread samples, each extracted from individual cell of honeycomb. It is the first time when analyses at single comb cell level were possible.
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