Tick-Borne Encephalitis—Review of the Current Status
Journal of Clinical Medicine
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Abstract: The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the arboviral etiological agent of tick-borneencephalitis (TBE), considered to be one of the most important tick-borne viral diseases in Europe andAsia. In recent years, an increase in the incidence of TBE as well as an increasing geographical range ofthe disease have been noted. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic and the imposition of restrictions thatit necessitated, the incidence of TBE is rising in more than half of the European countries analyzed inrecent studies. The virus is transmitted between ticks, animals, and humans. It seems that ticks andsmall mammals play a role in maintaining TBEV in nature. The disease can also affect dogs, horses,cattle, and small ruminants. Humans are incidental hosts, infected through the bite of an infectedtick or by the alimentary route, through the consumption of unpasteurized milk or milk productsfrom TBEV-infected animals. TBEV infections in humans may be asymptomatic, but the symptomscan range from mild flu-like to severe neurological. In Europe, cases of TBE are reported every year.While there is currently no effective treatment for TBE, immunization and protection against tickbites are critical in preventing this disease.
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