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Science of the Total Environment

dc.contributor.authorPajurek, Marek
dc.contributor.authorMikołajczyk, Szczepan
dc.contributor.authorWarenik-Bany, Małgorzata
dc.description.abstractThis study determines the levels of 49 persistent organic pollutants which were grouped into polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), in infant formula and varieties of baby food. The analyzed samples (n = 80) came from stores all over Poland.The presence of PCDD/F, PCDD/F/PCB and non dioxin-like (ndl)-PCB congeners above the maximum levels stipulated in Commission Regulation (EU) No 1259/2011 was not detected in any sample. The determined average content of PCDD/Fs/dl-PCBs in the tested baby foods was in the range of 4–10 % of the maximum level, and content of ndl-PCBs was in the range of 2–6 % of the maximum level. Despite these low levels of dioxins, furans, and PCBs, a risk analysis assuming weekly consumption of the recommended food intake showed exceedances of the tolerable weekly intake (TWI).The content of flame retardants was low in all examined categories of food for children and infant formula. The lower-bound concentration of the sum of HBCDD isomers (LB ∑HBCDDs) ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 0.0313 ng/g w.w. and the concentration of ∑PBDEs was in a 0.001–1.014 ng/g w.w. range. Neither infant formula nor baby food contributed considerably to infant exposure to HBCDDs or PBDEs.Our research indicates that the safe exposure thresholds for dioxins and PCBs in foods for infants and young children may be too high and perhaps it may be necessary to amend the legislation setting acceptable limits for baby food. It seems reasonable to introduce a recommendation on the frequency of food consumption for children and the control of raw materials for food production, in particular fish and cow milk, should be a permanent control point in the food safety assurance system.
dc.subjectbaby food
dc.subjectinfant formula
dc.subjectdietary intake
dc.titleOccurrence and dietary intake of dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), PCBs, and flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCDDs) in baby food and infant formula
dcterms.titleScience of the Total Environment

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