Infant formula and baby food as a source of perfluoroalkyl substances for infants
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The present study reports infants’ exposure to fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in infant formula and baby food. First infant milk, follow-on milk and three types of baby food were analyzed: a variety made of fruits and vegetables, a variety with added fish and one containing meat. The mean lower-bound (LB) concentration of ∑14 PFASs was 0.22 μg/kg wet weight (w.w.) in first infant milk and 0.24 μg/kg w. w. In follow-on milk. Lower levels were noticed in baby food, where the mean LB concentration of ∑14 PFASs was in a 0.019–0.025 μg/kg w. w. Range. Perfluorotetradecanoic acid was found to be in the highest concentration both in baby formula and baby food. Dietary intake of ∑14 PFASs (LB concentration) via infant formula was in 0.3–83.1 ng/kg body weight (b.w.) and 0.3–31.1 ng/kg b. w ranges for first infant milk and follow-on milk respectively. The mean dietary intakes of ∑14 PFASs via one serving of baby food were similar for three varieties and were in a 0.46–0.57 ng/kg b. w. Range. Dietary intake of ∑4 PFASs was negligible in regard to the tolerable weekly intake of 4.4 ng/kg b. w. Recently established by the European Food Safety Authority. This preliminary study brings new information on infant exposure to PFASs in Poland. It is suggested that more sensitive methods be used in the future, and since there are many types of infant foods with different compositions of ingredients, more studies should be conducted.
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