African Swine Fever (ASF) Trend Analysis in Wild Boar in Poland (2014–2020)
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African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of Suidae, i.e., domestic pigs and wild boars. The disease was introduced to Poland in 2014 and is now present in the wild boar population. Appropriate ASF prevention requires further research for answers to fundamental questions about the importance of vectors in virus transmission, the impact of environmental factors on the presence of ASFV in wild boar habitats, and the role of survivors as potential virus carriers and their part in the potential endemicity of ASF. In order to analyze the changes in the molecular and serological prevalence of ASFV in wild boar population in Poland, real-time PCR and ELISA/IPT tests were conducted. In the analyzed period (2014–2020), most of the ASF-positive wild boars were molecular/virus-positive, however, over the years the percentage and the number of seropositive animals has increased . At the beginning of the epidemic, the disease was limited to a small area of the country. Since then, it has spread to new provinces of Poland. From the beginning and until today, most notifications of ASF-positive wild boars were for carcasses (passive surveillance), however, the number of serologically positive animals is still increasing. Despite the fact that notifications of ASF outbreaks are still being received near the eastern border of Poland, the old ASF area seems to be limited mainly to ASF serologically positive animals, which may indicate the beginning of ASF endemicity in Poland.
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