HPLC-FLD-Based Method for the Detection of Sulfonamides in Organic Fertilizers Collected from Poland
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Antibacterial substances such as sulfonamides are widely used in veterinary medicine to treat many bacterial diseases. After their administration to animals, up to 90% of the initial dose of the antibiotic is excreted in the feces and/or urine, which can be applied to farmland as natural or organic fertilizers. In this work, an analytical method was developed with the use of HPLC-FLD for the detection and quantification of five sulfonamides (sulfaguanidine, sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine, sulamethazine and sulfamethoxazol) in poultry and pig feces, slurry and digestates. The method was validated according to EU requirements (Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and VICH GL49). Linearity, decision limit, detection capability, detection and quantification limits, recovery, precision, and selectivity were determined, and adequate results were obtained. Using the HPLC-FLD method for all analyzed matrices, recoveries were satisfactory (77.00–121.16%), with repeatability and reproducibility in the range of 4.36–17.34% to 7.94–18.55%, respectively. Decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were 33.87–67.63 and 53.36–92.00 µg/kg, respectively, and limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 13.53–23.30 and 26.02–40.38 µg/kg, respectively, depending on the analyte. The forty-four samples of natural and organic fertilizers were analyzed, and four samples showed sulfamethoxazole in the amount from range 158 to 11,070 µg/kg. The application of antibiotics including sulfonamides for farming animals is widespread and may lead to the development of antibiotic resistance and other environmental effects.
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