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dc.contributor.authorOlech, Monika
dc.contributor.authorKuźmak, Jacek
dc.description.abstractSmall ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) are a group of highly divergent viruses responsible for global infection in sheep and goats. In a previous study we showed that SRLV strains found in mixed flocks in Poland belonged to subtype A13 and A18, but this study was restricted only to the few flocks from Małopolska region. The present work aimed at extending earlier findings with the analysis of SRLVs in mixed flocks including larger numbers of animals and flocks from different part of Poland. On the basis of gag and env sequences, Polish SRLVs were assigned to the subtypes B2, A5, A12, and A17. Furthermore, the existence of a new subtypes, tentatively designed as A23 and A24, were described for the first time. Subtypes A5 and A17 were only found in goats, subtype A24 has been detected only in sheep while subtypes A12, A23, and B2 have been found in both sheep and goats. Co-infection with strains belonging to different subtypes was evidenced in three sheep and two goats originating from two flocks. Furthermore, three putative recombination events were identified within gag and env SRLVs sequences derived from three sheep. Amino acid (aa) sequences of immunodominant epitopes in CA protein were well conserved while Major Homology Region (MHR) had more alteration showing unique mutations in sequences of subtypes A5 and A17. In contrast, aa sequences of surface glycoprotein exhibited higher variability confirming typespecific variation in the SU5 epitope. The number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) ranged from 3 to 6 in respective sequences and were located in different positions. The analysis of LTR sequences revealed that sequences corresponding to the TATA box, AP-4, AML-vis, and polyadenylation signal (poly A) were quite conserved, while considerable alteration was observed in AP-1 sites. Interestingly, our results revealed that all sequences belonging to subtype A17 had unique substitution T to A in the fifth position of TATA box and did not have a 11 nt deletion in the R region which was noted in other sequences from Poland. These data revealed a complex picture of SRLVs population with ovine and caprine strains belonging to group A and B.We present strong and multiple evidence of dually infected sheep and goats in mixed flocks and present evidence that these viruses can recombine in vivo.en_US
dc.subjectsmall ruminant lentivirusesen_US
dc.titleMolecular Characterization of Small Ruminant Lentiviruses in Polish Mixed Flocks Supports Evidence of Cross Species Transmission, Dual Infection, a Recombination Event, and Reveals the Existence of New Subtypes within Group Aen_US
dcterms.bibliographicCitation2021 vol. 13 nr 12 s. 2529

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